## Articles for Teachers

Introduction

It is universally recognized that the teacher is the key person in an education system. He/She enjoys the high esteem and prestigious status sometimes denied to kings and emperors and he/she plays pivotal role. Around him, whole system of education revolves.

According to Lemlech (1988) classroom management is the linchpin that makes teaching and learning achievable. The author further defines the classroom management using the key components that affect success in the classroom:

Classroom management is the orchestration of classroom life: planning curriculum, organizing procedures and resources, arranging the environment to maximize efficiency, monitoring student progress, anticipating potential problems.

Classroom management

According to Honeyford (1982) a major limiting factor in any classroom is the teacher not only do his character, personality and competence play a large part in determining the atmosphere of the lesson, the sort of relationships which exist, the styles of communication and the rules and regulations governing the formalities, but the teacher also performs a key role in influencing the pupils’ view of himself and the sort of progress he/she makes.

Successful classroom management has been defined as producing a high rate of work involvement with a low rate of deviancy in academic settings (Laslett and Smith, 1984).

To some considerable degree teachers control their instructional effectiveness in the classroom. The passive teacher simply relies on the same old teaching techniques day after day. However, the active teacher who varies his/her day planning different teaching strategic and techniques tends to achieve more success in teaching. Not only does this practice of different teaching techniques provide change for the teacher, it also serves as a motivation for students (Dhand, 1990).

Good managers also carefully arrange their classrooms to minimize disturbances and make sure that instruction can proceed efficiently; they set up their rooms according to the following principles:

i. Teachers should be able to see all students at all times.

ii. Teaching materials and supplies are readily available.

iii. High – traffic areas should be free of congestion.

iv. Students should be able to see instructional presentations.

v. Procedures and routines should be actively taught in the same way that academic content is taught.

Well-managed classrooms did not result from magic, but that carefully established and maintained procedures were at work (Sadker and sadker, 1997).

Time management skill

Academic learning time in the classroom has emerged as an important variable. Studies have shown that the amount of on-task behaviour can vary as much as 40 percent from one classroom t the next.

Even how quickly a teacher calls the class to order can vary all the way from one to ten minutes. Thus, how efficiently you have your lessons, how long you take to get started, how you handle digressions, off-task behaviour, discipline and how you handle transitions will have an effect on student learning(Walberg,1988).

Students soon learn the importance of putting on a good face in order to protect their privacy. As a result of these and other factors, time is an important necessary condition but far from the whole story. In measurement terms the efficient use of instructional time has been an impact equal to 38 percent of one standard deviation. Basically, academic achievement was moderately affected by the efficient use of time (Sprinthall et al., 1994).

Student who spends more time pursuing academic content learn more and receive higher achievement scores. Although it is obviously important to allocate adequate time to academic content, making time on the schedules is not enough. How this allocated time is used in the classroom is the real key to student achievement. In order to the study use of classroom times, researchers have developed the following terms to allocated time, engaged time, and academic learning time.

Allocated time is the amount of time a teacher scheduled for a subject for example, 30 minutes a day for mathematics. The more time allocated for a subject, the higher student achievement in that subject is likely to be.

Engaged time is that part of allocated time which students are actively involved with academic subject matter (really listening to a lecture, participating in the class discussion, writing a composition, and working on mathematics problems).

Academic learning time is engaged time with a high success rate. Many researchers suggest that students should get 70 to 80 percent of the answers right when working with a teacher. New studies are demonstrating that a high success rate is positively related to student achievement. How effectively teachers provide for and manage academic learning time in their classrooms in the key in determining student achievement.

Effective classroom managers are nearly always good planners. They do not enter a room late, after noise and disruption have had a chance to build. They are waiting at the door when the children come in. starting from the very first day of school, they teach the rules about appropriate student behaviour. They do this actively and directly, sometimes they actually model the procedures for getting assistance, leaving the room, going to the pencil sharpener, and the like, the more important rules of classroom behaviour are written down, as are the penalties for not following them (Sadker and Sadker, 1997).

Seating arrangement

Activity structures vary in the extent to which they elicit and sustain cooperation. Similarly, arrangements of space and furniture in ways that bunch students together or obstruct the teacher’s view make it more difficult for a teacher to detect behaviour task initiations early (Duke and Rehage, 1979).

Seating arrangement must depend on type of lesson to be taught, and the type of classroom furniture. Whether using traditional serried ranks or desks of less formal group tables, each teacher needs to establish who sits where. Not only does this avoid an undignified scramble to sit nearest to or further from a particular child, the possession of a seating plan helps the teacher to learn names more rapidly (Laslett and Smith, 1984).

Proper arrangement of furniture also contributes to the functionality of classrooms. Furniture is arranged so that students are oriented to the primary source or sources of information (e.g., the teacher, audio-visual materials), while at the same time having access to other sources are activities (e.g., work areas, computers) without disturbing in the classroom (Nitsaisook and Anderson, 1989).

According to Anderson (1991) desks, chairs and tables can be arranged in a variety of ways; light and temperature can be increased or decreased. Paint wall coverings, art work and plants can be used to enhance or detract from the attractiveness of the physical classroom environment.

Discipline in the classroom

Callahan (1996) explains that the best classroom environment is one that results in efficient learning. Discipline involves employing guidance and teaching techniques to encourage students to become self directive and thus to create an atmosphere conducive to learning.

Effective planning for classroom control begins with an analysis of the individual students that compose the group to be taught. At the level of thought not at all level of action, the teacher must examine the causes of behaviour in the unemotional light of reason. Then he can plan intelligently how to forestall disciplinary infractions before they occur. When infractions do happen, as they inevitably will, appropriate steps can be taken so that as little injury as possible is done to the learning process.

A teacher establishes classroom rules either with his or her students or before the school year begins. There is no research that one approach is better than the other. Rules are best if they are few in number, simple and easy to understand, and fair.Also rules should be posted in the classroom for all to see, and the teacher should go over the rules on the first day of school.

According to Arif (2003) in order to create a classroom environment with maximum productive time utilization, the teachers must establish and maintain it through following teaching and managing practices so that instances of student disruptive behaviour are reduced. They remain mostly involved in learning oriented actions and activities.

(i) Keep students motivated by keeping the students motivated in learning, teachers set the stage for creating positive class environment. Motivating students is the first step toward preventing discipline problems in classrooms because a student involved in learning is not usually involved in clash with others at the same time.

(ii) Meet basic needs. Teachers must try to meet students’ basic as well as age related needs. Make students feel physically comfortable, safe, welcome, socially accepted and valued. Otherwise, they more likely to face learning difficulties and disruptively.

(iii) Exercise moderate degree of control. The degree of class control must be moderate. Student learning is great in classroom where teachers exercise neither too much nor too less control. Too much control may be effective on memory tasks but it is harmful for learning involving critical and creative thinking.

(iv) Empower the students make them responsible for their own learning through group and individual learning activities so that they ultimately become independent learners. This is one of the purposes of good classroom management.

(v) Keep instruction at the student level. Keep instruction at the students’ development level so that they neither experience discouragement nor boredom. Otherwise, they might behave disruptively.

(vi) Develop healthy and professionally sound relationship with all the students by being friendly with them. Learn their names and some positive information about each to greet them.

(vii) Communicate interest in all the students and show concern for each of them. The interest and concern is communicated through brief eye contact with all and through supporting gestures and facial expressions while teaching.

(viii) While instructing, ensure physical closeness with all the students by roaming around the class.

(ix) Avoid labeling the students with negative adjectives, which are likely to lower their self-esteem. Labeling influences teachers’ quality of interaction with the students, which further influences students’ expectations and actions negatively.

(x) Describe the behaviour of the misbehaving student, not characterize the student. Instead of saying, “you are rude” say “your comment was rude”. By criticizing the personality of the students, he is less likely to change his behaviour.

(xi) Increase the “engaged time” by keeping the students involved in the learning tasks through, wittiness, overlapping, smooth transitions and group focus.

(xii) Teach role and routines to the younger students in academic fashion with a lot of explanation, examples and practices during initial classes.

(xiii) Develop a set of few general classroom rules applicable to variety of situations. These rules should be displayed in the class.

(xiv) Be assertive, rather than passive or aggressive, in enforcing discipline. Apply the rule forcefully fairly, consistently and calmly.

(xv) Create business like climate in the classroom. Where students understand that they and the teacher have a commonly shared goal of accomplishing such activities that promote learning.

In order to handle misbehaving student, the following suggestions may prove helpful:

(i) Deal with the present, current problem immediately, not with the past instances of the student misbehaviour.

(ii) Talk to the student directly, instead of talking about him with others.

(iii) Don’t be harsh and provoked. Stay calm and address firmly. Anger, empty threats and physical handling must be avoided.

(iv) If the student is hostile, defuse and diffuse his hostility by responding with concern in calm, soothing tone. The feeling of the students must be acknowledged in order to calm him down.

(v) If the student’s misbehaviour is blocking the teacher in teaching, “1- statements” be used by explaining to the student why you are upset by his behaviour.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The objectives of the study were:

1. To investigate the competencies of secondary school teachers in classroom management.

2. To indicate the strength and weakness in the competencies of secondary school teachers in classroom management.

3. To suggest measures.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Population and Sampling

The population of the study consisted of 4459 heads of secondary schools, 20479 teachers at secondary level and 2796824 students at secondary level in public sector in the province of Punjab the 800 head teachers, 4000 secondary school teachers and 4000 secondary level students were considered as the sample of the study.

Research Tool Development and Data Collection

Since the study was descriptive in nature, therefore, survey approach was considered appropriate to collect the data. For the purpose, a thirteen item questionnaire on five-point (Likert) scale was developed

Administration of Research Tool

The questionnaires were administered on head teacher, secondary school teachers and secondary level students and responds were received.

Data Analysis

The data collected through questionnaire were coded and analyzed through Ms- Excel in terms of Chi Square and mean scores. Scale values assigned to each of the five responses was as

Scale Values

Level of Agreement Scale value

Highest (Hi) 5

High (H) 4

Moderate(M) 3

Low(Lo) 2

Lowest (L) 1

To calculate the mean score, following formula was used.

Mean Score = å (FHix5+ FHx4+ FMx3+ FLox2+ FLx1)

N

Where

FHi = Frequency of Highest Responses.

FH = Frequency of High Responses. .

FM = Frequency of Moderate Responses.

FLo = Frequency of Lower Responses.

FL = Frequency of Lowest Responses.

The findings from the data analysis are presented below.

FINDINGS

Data collected through the questionnaire was analyzed in terms of chi square and mean score. The findings drawn out from the data analysis are given below.

Table No: 1

Teachers come and leave the classroom in time.

Category Highest High Moderate Low Lowest Total Mean

Heads 186 135 284 116 79 800

3.31

Teachers 778 1145 1385 647 45 4000

Students 779 475 1443 1177 126 4000

Total 1743 1755 3112 1940 250 8800

Percentage 19.80% 19.94% 35.36% 22.0% 2.8%

Above table reveals that 75% respondents had responded for highest, high and moderate, while 25% respondents responded for low and lowest, while mean score is 3.31. This shows that mostly teachers come and leave the class in time.

Table No: 2

Teachers come to class well prepared.

Category Highest High Moderate Low Lowest Total Mean

Heads 138 179 165 302 16 800

3.72

Teachers 1135 1070 1135 647 13 4000

Students 1271 1419 1029 233 48 4000

Total 2544 2668 2329 1182 77 8800

Percentage 28.90 30.32 26.47 13.43 0.88

Above table reveals that 86% respondents responded for highest, high and moderate, while 14% responded for low and lowest, the mean score is 3.72. This shows that mostly teachers come to class well prepared.

Table No: 3

Teachers take care of class cleanliness.

Category Highest High Moderate Low Lowest Total Mean

Heads 131 399 107 133 30 800

3.8

Teachers 1315 1485 613 559 28 4000

Students 1327 1243 658 719 53 4000

Total 2773 3127 1378 1411 111 8800

Percentage 31.51 35.53 15.66 16.03 1.26

Above table reveals that the chi square value is greater than the table value at 0.05 significant level and the mean is also 3.8, which supports the statement. Hence the statement “Teachers take care of class cleanliness” is accepted and it is concluded that mostly teachers take care of cleanliness in classroom.

Table No:4

Teachers take care of students seating arrangement.

Category Highest High Moderate Low Lowest Total Mean

Heads 155 285 137 188 35 800

3.70

Teachers 1261 1079 957 559 144 4000

students 1278 1382 611 639 90 4000

Total 2694 2746 1705 1386 269 8800

Percentage 30.61 31.20 19.38 15.75 3.06

Above table reveals that the chi square value is greater than the table value at 0.05 significant level and the mean is also 3.8, which supports the statement. Hence the statement “Teachers take care of students seating arrangement” is accepted and it is concluded that mostly teachers take care of seating arrangement in classroom.

Table No: 5

Teachers maintain the discipline in the class.

Category Highest High Moderate Low Lowest Total Mean

Heads 109 311 205 123 52 800

3.72

Teachers 1012 1458 1036 428 66 4000

Students 1221 1389 783 575 32 4000

Total 2342 3158 2024 1126 150 8800

Percentage 26.61 35.89 23.00 12.80 1.70

Above table reveals that the chi square value is greater than the table value at 0.05 significant level and the mean is also 3.72, which supports the statement. Hence the statement “Teachers maintain the discipline in the class” is accepted and it is concluded that mostly teachers maintain the discipline in the class.

Table No: 6

Teachers apply educational psychology in the classroom.

Category Highest High Moderate Low Lowest Total Mean

Heads 121 168 81 265 165 800

2.49

Teachers 118 797 965 1062 1058 4000

Students 262 948 221 1518 1051 4000

Total 501 1913 1267 2845 2274 8800

Percentage 5.69 21.73 14.40 32.33 25.84

Above table reveals that the chi square value is greater than the table value at 0.05 significant level and the mean is also 2.63, which supports the statement. Hence the statement “Teachers apply educational psychology in the classroom” is accepted and it is concluded that normally teachers apply educational psychology in the classroom.

Table No: 7

Teachers improve attitude, work habits and skills of the pupils.

Category Highest High Moderate Low Lowest Total Mean

Heads 37 133 155 228 247 800

2.88

Teachers 631 564 1115 1165 525 4000

Students 712 333 1363 1312 280 4000

Total 1380 1030 2633 2705 1052 8800

Percentage 15.68 11.70 29.92 30.74 11.95

Above table reveals that the chi square value is greater than the table value at 0.05 significant level and the mean is also 2.88, which supports the statement. Hence the statement “Teachers improve attitude, work habits and skills of the pupils.” is accepted and it is concluded that mostly teachers improve attitude habits and skills of the pupils.

Table No: 8

Teachers give individual attention to students.

Category Highest High Moderate Low Lowest Total Mean

Heads 119 201 207 253 20 800

3.48

Teachers 1035 1055 973 748 189 4000

students 1068 1362 387 1003 180 4000

Total 2222 2618 1567 2004 389 8800

Percentage 25.25 29.75 17.80 22.77 4.42

Above table reveals that the chi square value is greater than the table value at 0.05 significant level and the mean is also 3.48, which supports the statement. Hence the statement “Teachers give individual attention to students.” is accepted and it is concluded that mostly teachers give individual attention to students.

Table No: 9

Teachers have developed self-confidence.

Category Highest High Moderate Low Lowest Total Mean

Heads 193 222 241 133 11 800

3.75

Teachers 1289 1208 1042 357 104 4000

students 1206 1328 714 732 20 4000

Total 2688 2758 1997 1222 135 8800

Percentage 30.55 31.34 22.69 13.89 1.53

Above table reveals that the chi square value is greater than the table value at 0.05 significant level and the mean is also 3.75, which supports the statement. Hence the statement “Teachers have developed self-confidence” is accepted and it is concluded that mostly teachers have developed self confidence.

Table No: 10

Teachers use variety of methods during teaching.

Category Highest High Moderate Low Lowest Total Mean

Heads 158 117 203 212 110 800

3.14

Teachers 829 605 1097 1443 26 4000

students 979 403 1085 1205 328 4000

Total 1966 1125 2385 2860 464 8800

Percentage 22.34 12.78 27.10 32.50 5.27

Above table reveals that the chi square value is greater than the table value at 0.05 significant level and the mean is also 3.14, which supports the statement. Hence the statement “Teachers use variety of methods during teaching” is accepted and it is concluded that mostly teachers use variety of methods during teaching.

Table No: 11

Variation in pitch of voice of the teachers is focused on teaching

points.

Category Highest High Moderate Low Lowest Total Mean

Heads 127 219 135 295 24 800

3.20

Teachers 740 771 1015 1365 109 4000

students 942 401 1488 1018 151 4000

Total 1809 1391 2638 2678 284 8800

Percentage 20.56 15.81 29.98 30.43 3.22

Above table reveals that the chi square value is greater than the table value at 0.05 significant level and the mean is also 3.20, which supports the statement. Hence the statement “Variation in pitch of voice of the teachers is focused on teaching points” is accepted and it is concluded that mostly variation in pitch of voice of the teachers is focused on teaching points.

Table No: 12

Test developed by teachers is reliable.

Category Highest High Moderate Low Lowest Total Mean

Heads 55 188 107 301 149 800

2.38

Teachers 172 950 158 1295 1425 4000

students 167 1059 352 1153 1269 4000

Total 394 2197 617 2749 2843 8800

Percentage 4.48 24.97 7.01 31.24 32.30

Above table reveals that the chi square value is greater than the table value at 0.05 significant level and the mean is also 2.38, which supports the statement. Hence the statement “Test developed by teachers is reliable” is accepted due to the value of chi square. Otherwise negative responses are more and mean is also less than 2.5, which indicated those tests develop by teachers are not reliable.

Table No: 3

During examination the teachers perform well.

Category Highest High Moderate Low Lowest Total Mean

Heads 178 195 212 202 13 800

3.51

Teachers 966 1012 981 989 52 4000

students 1157 1061 882 760 140 4000

Total 178 195 212 202 13 8800

Percentage 26.15 25.77 23.58 22.17 2.33

Above table reveals that the chi square value is greater than the table value at 0.05 significant level and the mean is also 3.51, which supports the statement. Hence the statement “During examination the teachers perform well” is accepted and it is concluded that mostly teachers performed well during examination.

Discussion

The results of the study indicate that all the respondents were of the view that the secondary school teachers were aware of national goals and objectives and they properly manage the classrooms, efficiency in management skills is very important for secondary school teachers. Management skills not only maintain the discipline in the classroom but also make the teaching an interesting activity. So majority of the respondents reported that secondary teachers were found fully equipped with management skills and they are playing their role as classroom managers. Effective teachers must be highly competent in planning and organizing instruction as well as in managing in classroom environment, if their students are to be academically successful (Dilworth, 1991). It was reported that teachers did not apply educational psychology in the classrooms. It was also reported that secondary school teachers were found very weak in test construction. The reason is very obvious that they were not properly trained in the area of measurement and evaluation; therefore, their competency in test development was reported to be very weak. The course on measurement and evaluation be enriched and made compulsory in all teacher training programmes (especially in B.Ed).

Conclusion

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Aijaz Ahmed Gujjar is working as Lecturer (Education)in federal College of Education,H-9, Islamabad.He is also Doctorate Scholar at Department of Education, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur.