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Counting numbers in Japanese language is quite easy, because they are logically made from combination of the Japanese numbers 1 - 10.
All you have to remember is how to count,
1 - 10
100, 1000, and 10,000
In Japanese language, we count 1 (ichi), 2 (ni), 3(san), 4(shi), 5 (go), 6(rokku), 7(hichi), 8(hachi), kyu(9), 10(jyu), 100(hyaku), 1000(sen), and 10,000(man).
For example, the grade of 10, the numbers 11 - 19 are made of 10 plus the relevant unit.
Jyu ichi(11) = Jyu(10) + ichi(1)
Jyu go (15) = Jyu(10) + go(5)
20(ni jyu) is made of a 2 (ni) in front of 10(jyu).
You then add the relevant unit to make 21, 22, 23 and so on:
In Japanese language, this simple method is applied to the grade of 100, 1000, and 10,000.
So, if you want to count 101(Hyaku ichi), you combine 100 (Hyaku) and 1 (ichi).
In the case of 111(Hyaku Jyu Ichi), you combine 3 relevant numbers 100(Hyaku), 10(Jyu) and 1 (ichi).
By the way, let me also explain about the difference betwen the English counting system and the Japanese counting system.
In the Western counting system we count in thousands until we reach one million.
The Japanese system of counting is silghtly different.
Instead of saying ten thousand, there is an extra word to represent this amount.
That is why we say "man" of 10,000, not 10(Jyu) 1000(Sen)
So, in the ccase of 20,000, we say 2(Ni) 10,000 (man).
You can also see the video which explain about how to count in Japanese language as well.
Japanese Video lesson http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DZz_Kh2B4n8 to learn how to count numbers in Japanese langauge.
If you would like to learn more about the Japanese language, please also see Learn Japanese language for real communication http://www.learn-japanese-kanji-hiragana-katakana.com/.
Takanori Tomita - working as a Japanese translator and web creator in Japan. He also publish his book in Japan, and has a number of experience in teaching Japanese to foreigners.