Sounds like culture shock to me.
A lot of people assume culture shock will happen when they first arrive in a country and in some cases to some extent it does. However, many people also suffer from it months if not years after arriving in a country. As you said when you first came to China you were expecting to see all these wonderful things and to some extent you probably did. People also condition themselves prior to arrival in a new country to expect some difficulties. Therefore, when these difficulties occur they treat it as just par for the course and nothing to get upset about.
Once you get through this honeymoon period you begin to expect that you'll be used to all the different, sometimes annoying little things that exist in Chinese culture (I'm sure we could all come up with long lists of these). However, it's unlikely that you will be able to do this to a full extent.
I still suffer from this problem periodically and it usually manifests itself as anger and frustration with those around me. I went back home for an extened period a couple of years ago and that helped. Equally as other have pointed out the culture in places like HK is different and usually more in line with Western expectations so that can provide a safe haven too. In general a good supportive working environment is important. I'm sure anyone who has worked here long enough will have been confronted with the shrug of the shoulders and "that's China" response to a problem you have - not really helpful is it!